- About Optimizer Hints
- August 12–22: Online Training (EU shift)
- Clustered Indexes Dirty Secret
- FOSDEM Impressions
- June 8–18: Online Training (US shift)
- MySQL is to SQL like ??? to NoSQL
- Non-monetary micro sponsoring
- November 11-12 in Frankfurt am Main
- Online-Training in July and August
- Oracle + PostgreSQL
- Oracle Bootcamp
- Party time
- PostgreSQL Performance Event
- Quiz Results
- SQL Server Performance Kurs in Stuttgart
- SQL Server performance training in London
- Shipping Terms
- Springtime for SQL
- The two top performance problems caused by ORM tools
- Top Tweets January 2013
- Training Survey
- Training and Conference Dates
- Use The Index, Luke
2011-02-26PostgreSQL Scripts: Performance Testing and Scalability
This section contains the
INSERT and PL/pgSQL code to run the scalability test from the Testing and Scalability Chapter in a PostgreSQL database.
These scripts will create large objects in the database and produce a huge amount of transaction logs.
It’s required to run the test against a very large data set to make sure caching does not affect the measurement. Depending on your environment, you might need to create even larger tables to reproduce a linear result as shown in the book.
CREATE TABLE scale_data ( section NUMERIC NOT NULL, id1 NUMERIC NOT NULL, id2 NUMERIC NOT NULL );
There is no primary key (to keep the data generation simple).
There is no index (yet). That’s done after filling the table.
There is no "junk" column to keep the table small.
INSERT INTO scale_data SELECT sections.*, gen.* , CEIL(RANDOM()*100) FROM GENERATE_SERIES(1, 300) sections, GENERATE_SERIES(1, 900000) gen WHERE gen <= sections * 3000;
This code generates 300 sections, you may need to adjust the number for your environment. If you increase the number of sections, you might also need to increase second
GENERATE_SERIEScall. It must generate at least
3000 x <number of sections>records.
The table will need some gigabytes.
CREATE INDEX scale_slow ON scale_data (section, id1, id2); ALTER TABLE scale_data CLUSTER ON scale_slow; CLUSTER scale_data;
The index will also need some gigabytes.
PostgresSQL doesn’t support covering indexes as of release 9.0.3. That means, it’s not possible to select from an index only, without the corresponding table access. We will therefore cluster the table according to the index, to keep the impact at a minimum.
That might take ages.
CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION test_scalability (sql_txt VARCHAR(2000), n INT) RETURNS SETOF RECORD AS $$ DECLARE tim INTERVAL; rec INT; strt TIMESTAMP; v_rec RECORD; iter INT; sec INT; cnt INT; rnd INT; BEGIN FOR iter IN 0..n LOOP FOR sec IN 0..300 LOOP IF iter = 0 THEN tim[sec] := 0; rec[sec] := 0; END IF; rnd := CEIL(RANDOM() * 100); strt := CLOCK_TIMESTAMP(); EXECUTE 'select count(*) from (' || sql_txt || ') tbl' INTO cnt USING sec, rnd; tim[sec] := tim[sec] + CLOCK_TIMESTAMP() - strt; rec[sec] := rec[sec] + cnt; IF iter = n THEN SELECT INTO v_rec sec, tim[sec], rec[sec]; RETURN NEXT v_rec; END IF; END LOOP; END LOOP; RETURN; END; $$ LANGUAGE plpgsql;
TEST_SCALABILITYfunction returns a table.
It’s hardcoded to run the test 300 sections
The number of iterations is configurable
SELECT * FROM test_scalability('SELECT * ' || 'FROM scale_data ' || 'WHERE section=$1 ' || 'AND id2=$2', 10) AS (sec INT, seconds INTERVAL, cnt_rows INT);
The counter test, with a better index, can be done like that:
CREATE INDEX scale_fast ON scale_data (section, id2, id1); ALTER TABLE scale_data CLUSTER ON scale_fast; CLUSTER scale_data; SELECT * FROM test_scalability('SELECT * ' || 'FROM scale_data ' || 'WHERE section=$1 ' || 'AND id2=$2', 10) AS (sec INT, seconds INTERVAL, cnt_rows INT);
It’s required to cluster the table on the new index. That might take ages.