PostgreSQL Join Examples

This section contains the CREATE and INSERT code to run the examples from “The Join Operator” in a PostgreSQL database.

  sale_id       NUMERIC NOT NULL,
  employee_id   NUMERIC NOT NULL,
  subsidiary_id NUMERIC NOT NULL,
  sale_date     DATE    NOT NULL,
  eur_value     NUMERIC(17,2) NOT NULL,
  product_id    NUMERIC NOT NULL,
  quantity      NUMERIC NOT NULL,
  junk          CHAR(200),
  CONSTRAINT sales_pk     
     PRIMARY KEY (sale_id),
  CONSTRAINT sales_emp_fk 
     FOREIGN KEY          (subsidiary_id, employee_id)
      REFERENCES employees(subsidiary_id, employee_id)


INSERT INTO sales (sale_id
                 , subsidiary_id, employee_id
                 , sale_date, eur_value
                 , product_id, quantity
                 , junk)
SELECT row_number() OVER (), data.*
  FROM (
       SELECT e.subsidiary_id, e.employee_id
            , (CURRENT_DATE - CAST(RANDOM()*3650 AS NUMERIC) * INTERVAL '1 DAY') sale_date
            , CAST(RANDOM()*100000 AS NUMERIC)/100 eur_value
            , CAST(RANDOM()*25 AS NUMERIC) + 1 product_id
            , CAST(RANDOM()*5 AS NUMERIC) + 1 quantity
            , 'junk'
         FROM employees e
            , GENERATE_SERIES(1, 1800) gen
        WHERE MOD(employee_id, 7) = 4
          AND gen < employee_id / 5
        ORDER BY sale_date
       ) data
 WHERE TO_CHAR(sale_date, 'D') <> '1';



  • The rows are inserted chronologically to reflect a natural table growth.

  • Only a small fraction of employees have sales at all.

About the Author

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Markus Winand tunes developers for high SQL performance. He also published the book SQL Performance Explained and offers in-house training as well as remote coaching at